If the book of lamentations fails to move god, it fulfills another. The book of lamentations was written by the prophet jeremiah according to jewish tradition. He has thrown down from heaven to earth the splendor of israel, forgotten his footstool the sanctuary on the day of his anger. During the 9th of av, it is a custom to read the book of lamentations. For this reason, a glass is broken at jewish weddings, to remember yerushalayim even at the happiest. We call this book lamentations because it is a collection of sad poems. Although the poems are traditionally ascribed to the prophet jeremiah. Book of lamentations overview insight for living ministries. The poems use the literary style of an acrostic where the poem is built around the alphabet 16. It is a very emotional book in which the prophet expresses feelings of intense loneliness, a sense of utter abandonment, desolation, desecration of that which was sacred, pain and suffering.
Because this last verse of the book is so negative, many hebrew manuscripts of lamentations end by repeating lamentations 5. The targum or aramaic paraphrase of jonathan which dates to ca. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading lamentations 2002. The septuagint the greek translation of the old testament gives this prefix. Berel entered the guestroom to find a simple jew, dressed like a peasant, shoeless, sitting on the floor, crying bitter tears over the jewish exile. You can find the best commentary on lamentations for you using the tools on the right side. Lamentations was almost certainly written in the sixth century b. In the middle ages, however, jewish commentators deemphasize this connection. The description shows the miseries of the jewish nation.
The rabbinic targum of lamentations demonstrates how the targumist transformed the book of lamentations by absolving god of all guilt, declaring israels culpability for jerusalems destruction, and presenting the path towards reconciliation through repentance and rabbinic worship. The hebrew title has a much different meaning though. Some view the last chapter of jeremiah as an introduction to lamentations. Eikha book of lamentations is the third of the five megillot scrolls of ketuvim. This limited teaching experience coupled with the somewhat detailed study of the book in the classroom of dr. Lamentations cannot be the scroll that was written by jeremiah but was burned according to jeremiah 36, as the ancient sages maintained, because it neither. The entire book of lamentations is poetic in its form. This text is taken from chapter 1 of the lamentations of jeremiah, verses 1014. In the tanakh, which is the jewish bible, the book is called eikhah, which means how and also happens to be the first word of the first chapter. The lamentations of jeremiah, old testament book belonging to the third.
Abraham ibn ezra, the 12 th century exegete, already questioned the attribution in the introduction to his commentary. Mention must also be made of isaac arama 143094, whose aqedhah, his commentary on the pentateuch homiletical in style, was the standard book for the jewish pulpit for centuries, much esteemed by the christian world, and is still much read by the jews, especially in russia and poland. Read the text of lamentations online with commentaries and connections. It is a very emotional book in which the prophet expresses feelings of intense. God wanted his people to take care of jerusalem and the special house in it. It also became customary, when the jews read the book in synagogue worship, for them to repeat lamentations 5. Jeremiah, also known as the weeping prophet writes this after the destruction of jerusalem by the babylonians. The volume of the readers voice builds to the climax, which is sung aloud by the entire congregation. Lamentations is set just after jerusalems destruction by the babylonians in 586 bc. The author of the book of lamentations was attempting to show the fulfillment of the curses presented in deuteronomy 28.
The book of tanach authored by jeremiah, lamenting the destruction of the holy temple, the suffering the jews experienced at that time, and the ensuing exile. It would be more accurate to write the title of the book as eikhah. How enveloped in darkness adonai, in his anger, has made the daughter of tziyon. Indeed, it is highly improbable that lamentations was composed by any one man, for the following reasons. How doth the city sit solitary the short history of the desolations of the jewish nation, contained in the fiftysecond chapter of jeremiah, formerly stood as a preface to the lamentations. Lamentations 1 niv bible how deserted lies the city. Because of its subject matter, the book is also referred to in jewish tradition as qinot,lamentations, a title taken over by the septuagint the prechristian greek translation of the ot and by the fourthcentury latin vulgate. The book contains five poems that depict the condition of the forsaken city of jerusalem which had been burnt to the ground and utterly demolished by the babylonians on the ninth of av in the jewish calendar in 586 bc, in contrast to the magnificent. The book of lamentations is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of jerusalem in.
Lamentations biblical studies oxford bibliographies. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. This date commemorates five catastrophes in jewish history, including the destruction of the first and second temples by the babylonians and romans respectively. Apr, 2017 this text is taken from chapter 1 of the lamentations of jeremiah, verses 1014. Blank of the hebrew union collegejewish institution of re. In lamentations, the poet grieves, yet still has faithcrying out to god for mercy.
Lamentations 1 how deserted lies the city, once so full of people. This summary of the book of lamentations provides information about the title, author s, date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the book of lamentations. In his wrath he broke down the strongholds of the daughter of yhudah, brought them down to the ground, thus. How like a widow is she, who once was great among the nations. She who was queen among the provinces has now become a slave. In the hebrew bible it appears in the ketuvim writings, beside the song of songs, book of ruth, ecclesiastes and the book of esther the megilot or five scrolls, although there is no set order. The talmud, that vast reservoir of jewish law and tradition, states. The book of lamentations has been billed as a natural supplement to the book of jeremiah. Enduring word bible commentary lamentations chapter 1. Early rabbinic interpretation connected the curse of child eating lev 26. The book of lamentations has been taken up through history both as poetry and as an expression of boundless grief.
His job description was to carry gods messages over nations and over kingdoms, to pluck up and to pull down, to. And it came to pass after that israel had been carried away captive, and. A thorough scholarly introduction to the book of lamentations, including introductory comments on genre, authorship, date, and theology as well as a sectionbysection commentary on the entire book. Summary of the book of lamentations the story of the. The book of lamentations expresses the humiliation, suffering, and despair of jerusalem and her people following the destruction of the city by the babylonians in 587 bce. The occasion of these lamentations was the destruction of judah and jerusalem by the chaldean army and the dissolution of the jewish state both civil and ecclesiastical thereby. Both jewish and christian tradition ascribe authorship to jeremiah, and the septuagintthe greek translation of the old testamenteven adds a note asserting jeremiah as the. Some of the rabbies will have these to be the lamentations which jeremiah penned upon occasion of the death of josiah, which are mentioned 2 chronicles 35.
Also, i believe berlin is a jewish scholar, so christian readers looking for help exalting christ from lamentations will have to look elsewhere. The people who lived in jerusalem did not obey god. The book of lamentations is book of sorrowful songs or poems. Free online bible library jewish commentary on the bible. In the manuscripts and printed copies of the old testament the book is called. The book of lamentations, the sad prophecy of jeremiah regarding the destruction of the first temple in jerusalem and the subsequent exile of our nation, forms. The reluctant prophets call and job description jeremiah and lamentations in his early twenties, jeremiah received gods call to be a prophet.
Like the book of job, lamentations pictures a man of god puzzling over the results of evil and suffering in the world. However, while job dealt with unexplained evil, jeremiah lamented a tragedy entirely of jerusalems making. The dialogic interaction between the book of lamentations and the preexilicearly exilic prophetic literature new yorklondon. The talmud the babylonian talmud, tractate bava batra 15a states that it was written by the prophet jeremiah, who lived at the time of. Eichah lamentations judaica press translation with rashis commentary at. Lamentations 1 niv bible how deserted lies the city, once. Traditionally attributed to the authorship of the prophet jeremiah, lamentations was more likely written for public rituals commemorating the destruction of the city of jerusalem and its temple. Jewish bible commentaries merrimack valley havurah. Best commentaries and books on lamentations logos bible. Without pity adonai swallowed up all the dwellings of yaakov. In megillat eicha, lamentations, the prophet yirmiyahu records his impressions of the destruction of yerushalayim and the first beit hamikdash, and the exile of the jews from the land of israel. This is a time of mourning for the jewish people, and we spend these weeks deep in solemnity and regard for the destruction of our holy temple.
Lamentations begins with the hebrew word eicha how, and the book is known in hebrew as megillat eicha the scroll of eicha. Lamentations is read in jewish synagogues on the ninth day of the fourth month julyaug, which is the day of the destruction of the city of jerusalem jer 52. See 2 kgs 25 for a prose account of the fall of jerusalem. The jewish people read lamentations every year on the date commemorating the destruction of the temple in jerusalem. The book is a theological and prophetic response to the destruction of the first temple beit hamikdash, in jerusalem, in 586 b. As jeremiah identified himself with the sad condition of the people under gods judgment so will also the lord jesus have compassion with israels. Lamentations free bible commentary in easy english. That deficiency has since been remedied with three courses, one an undergraduate survey, one a graduate seminar, and one a course in hebrew exegesis. Encyclopedia of jewish and israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from antisemitism to zionism. Using commentary from the targum, rashi, and ibn ezra, as well as contemporary sources. While the author of lamentations remains nameless within the book, strong evidence from both inside and outside the text points to the prophet jeremiah as the author. Bitterly she weeps at night, tears are on her cheeks. Although the poems are traditionally ascribed to the prophet jeremiah, this is unlikely. The three weeks bein hametzarim are bookended by a minor fast on the 17th of tammuz and a major fast on the 9th of av.
Jeremiah was a prophet of the old testament who lived during, and. Although the hebrew text of lamentations is anonymous, tradition attributes the book to the prophet jeremiah. The chief focus of lamentations is on gods judgment in response to judahs sin. Chapter 1a all verse 1b all verse 2 twentytwo verses. A commentary the old testament library kindle edition by berlin, adele. Lamentations 1 bible commentary matthew henry concise. Book of lamentations read, study bible verses online.
The jewish community reads sepher eka the hebrew title for lamentations, literally, the book of how during the ninth of ab. Eicha, the book of lamentations, asks important questions that address the theological crisis following the jewish exile. The book of lamentations is a collection of five poems that serve as an anguished response to the destruction of jerusalem in 587 b. It is read on tisha bav, the anniversary of the temples destruction.162 531 1283 1567 1209 60 1450 1558 120 54 202 46 279 1236 1083 334 1427 659 256 994 1048 566 292 1292 1448 583 1092 217 352 20 1019 312 1103 642 345